See also

Family of Henry II and Eleanor of AQUITAINE

Husband: Henry II (1133-1189)
Wife: Eleanor of AQUITAINE (c. 1123-1204)
Children: John LACKLAND (c. 1166-c. 1216)
William IX, Count of POITIERS (1153-1156)
Henry the Young KING (1155-1183)
Matilda, Duchess of SAXONY (1156-1189)
Richard I of ENGLAND (1157-1199)
Geoffrey II, Duke of BRITTANY (1158-1186)
Eleanor, Queen of CASTILE (1162-1214)
Joan, Queen of SICILY (1165-1199)
Marriage 18 May 1152

Husband: Henry II


Henry II, Henry_II_of_England

Name: Henry II
Sex: Male
Name Prefix: King of England
Name Suffix: Plantagenet
Father: Geoffrey PLANTAGENET (1113-1151)
Mother: Matilda (1102-1167)
Birth 5 Mar 1133
Death 6 Jul 1189 (age 56)

Wife: Eleanor of AQUITAINE


Eleanor of AQUITAINE, Eleanor of aquitaine

Name: Eleanor of AQUITAINE
Sex: Female
Father: -
Mother: -
Birth c. 1123
Death 31 Mar 1204 (age 80-81)

Child 1: John LACKLAND


John LACKLAND, King John, Worcester Cathedral


Spouse: Isabella, Countess of ANGOULÊME, IsabelledAngouleme

Sex: Male
Name Suffix: King of England
Spouse 1: Isabella, Countess of GLOUCESTER (c. 1173-1217)
Spouse 2: Isabella, Countess of ANGOULÊME (1188-1246)
Birth c. Dec 1166
Death c. Oct 1216 (age 49)

Child 2: William IX, Count of POITIERS

Name: William IX, Count of POITIERS
Sex: Male
Birth 17 Aug 1153
Death Apr 1156 (age 2)

Child 3: Henry the Young KING

Name: Henry the Young KING
Sex: Male
Spouse: Margaret of FRANCE ( - )
Birth 28 Feb 1155
Death 11 Jun 1183 (age 28)

Child 4: Matilda, Duchess of SAXONY

Name: Matilda, Duchess of SAXONY
Sex: Female
Spouse: Henry the Lion, Duke of SAXONY ( - )
Birth Jun 1156
Death 13 Jul 1189 (age 33)

Child 5: Richard I of ENGLAND

Name: Richard I of ENGLAND
Sex: Male
Spouse: Berengaria of NAVARRE ( - )
Birth 8 Sep 1157
Death 6 Apr 1199 (age 41)

Child 6: Geoffrey II, Duke of BRITTANY

Name: Geoffrey II, Duke of BRITTANY
Sex: Male
Birth 23 Sep 1158
Death 19 Aug 1186 (age 27)

Child 7: Eleanor, Queen of CASTILE

Name: Eleanor, Queen of CASTILE
Sex: Female
Spouse: Alfonso VIII of CASTILE ( - )
Birth 13 Oct 1162
Death 31 Oct 1214 (age 52)

Child 8: Joan, Queen of SICILY

Name: Joan, Queen of SICILY
Sex: Female
Spouse 1: William II of SICILY ( - )
Spouse 2: Raymond VI of TOULOUSE ( - )
Birth Oct 1165
Death 4 Sep 1199 (age 33)

Note on Husband: Henry II

Henry II (5 March 1133 - 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle, Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as King of England (1154–89), Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, and Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Henry was born to Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, who claimed the title of Empress from her first marriage. He became actively involved in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England by the age of 14, and was made the Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to the French king Louis VII had recently been annulled. Henry's military expedition to England in 1153 led to King Stephen agreeing to a peace treaty in 1153 and Henry inheriting the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. Still quite young, he now controlled what would later be called the Angevin empire stretching across much of western Europe.


Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his royal grandfather, Henry I of England. During the early years of the younger Henry's reign he restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou, Maine and Touraine. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "Cold War" over several decades. Henry expanded his empire, often at Louis's expense, taking Brittany, pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties no permanent peace was reached. Meanwhile, Henry undertook various legal reforms in both England and Normandy, establishing the basis for the future English Common Law, and reformed the royal finances and currency. Although Henry usually worked well with the local hierarchies of the Church, his desire to control and reform the relationship between the Church in England led to conflict with his former friend, the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket. This controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket's death in 1170, for which Henry was widely blamed.


As Henry's reign progressed he had many children with Eleanor and tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged by first Louis VII and then Louis's son and successor Philip Augustus. In 1173 Henry's then eldest son, Henry, usually known as "Young Henry", rebelled in protest at his treatment by Henry; he was joined by his brothers Richard, Geoffrey and by their mother, Eleanor. France, Scotland, Flanders and Boulogne allied with the rebels against Henry. The Great Revolt spread across Henry's lands and was only defeated by Henry's vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Henry was mostly generous in victory and appeared at the height of his powers. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183, however, resulting in Young Henry's death. Despite invading Ireland to provide lands for his youngest son John, Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power. Philip successfully played on Richard's fears that Henry would make John king and a final rebellion broke out in 1189. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon in Anjou where he died.


Henry's empire did not long outlast him and collapsed during the reign of his youngest son John. Many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule, however, had major long-term consequences. Henry's legal changes are generally considered to have laid down the basis for the English Common Law, while his intervention in Brittany, Wales and Scotland had a significant long-term impact on the development of their societies and governmental systems. Historical interpretations of Henry's reign have changed considerably over time. In the 18th century, scholars argued that Henry was a driving force in the creation of a genuinely English monarchy and, ultimately, a unified Britain. Victorian historians expressed more concern over the king's private life and treatment of Becket, but - influenced by the emergence of the British empire - were keenly interested in the formation of Henry's own empire. Late twentieth century historians have focused on combining British and French historical accounts of Henry, challenging earlier Anglocentric interpretations of his reign.

Note on Wife: Eleanor of AQUITAINE

Eleanor of Aquitaine (in French: Aliénor d’Aquitaine, Éléonore de Guyenne) (1122 or 1124 - 1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages. As well as being Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right, she was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and of England (1154–1189). She was the patroness of such literary figures as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-Maure, and Bernart de Ventadorn.


Eleanor succeeded her father as suo jure Duchess of Aquitaine and Countess of Poitiers at the age of fifteen, and thus became the most eligible bride in Europe. Three months after her accession, she married Louis VII, son and junior co-ruler of her guardian, King Louis The Fat. As Queen of France, she participated in the unsuccessful Second Crusade. Soon after the Crusade was over, Eleanor sought an annulment of her marriage[2] but was rejected by Pope Eugene III.[3] However, after the birth of Alix, another daughter, Louis agreed to an annulment.[4] The marriage was annulled on 11 March 1152, on the grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree. Their daughters were declared legitimate and custody was awarded to Louis, while Eleanor's lands were restored to her.


As soon as the annulment was granted, Eleanor became engaged to Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy, her cousin within the third degree, who was nine years younger than her. The couple married on 18 May 1152, eight weeks after the annulment of Eleanor's first marriage. On 25 October 1154, Henry ascended the throne of the Kingdom of England, making Eleanor Queen of the English. Over the next thirteen years, she bore Henry eight children: five sons, two of whom would become king, and three daughters. However, Henry and Eleanor eventually became estranged. She was imprisoned between 1173 and 1189 for supporting her son Henry's revolt against her husband.


Eleanor was widowed on 6 July 1189. Her husband was succeeded by their son, Richard I, who immediately released his mother. Now queen dowager, Eleanor acted as a regent for her son while he went off on the Third Crusade. Eleanor survived her son Richard and lived well into the reign of her youngest son John. By the time of her death she had outlived all of her children except for King John and Eleanor, Queen of Castile.